List of Major sexually transmitted diseases and their causative agents

The number of sexually transmitted microorganisms (eg, bacteria, virus, fungi and parasites) and the spectrum of clinical syndromes or diseases associated with these agents are expanding with the nature of changing sexual orientations of people and increasing number of immunosuppressive population (people with HIV/AIDS, under immunosuppressive therapy, cancer conditions), etc.

While developed countries have access to testing methods, many populations in developing countries do not have access to STI information, testing, or preventative measures.  Due to the asymptomatic nature of many STDs, those without this knowledge and access to medical testing and care, are at higher risk of contracting and transmitting these infections.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Multiple pathogens can cause one particular disease e.g. vaginitis can be caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, etc.

This blog post lists some of the selected sexually transmitted diseases and pathogens mostly associated with that particular disease.

  1. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS): Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  2. Bacterial vaginosis: Gardnerella vaginalis
  3. Chancroid: Haemophilus ducreyi
  4. Chlamydia trachomatis infections (such as cervicitis, urethritis, prepubertal vaginitis, proctitis, endometritis, etc): Chlamydia trachomatis
  5. Chlamydial lymphogranuloma: Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1, L2 and L3
  6. Genital Herpes: Herpes Simplex Virus type 2
  7. Gonorrhea: Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  8. Lymphogranuloma venereum: C. trachomatis
  9. Neonatal sepsis and meningitis: Streptococcus agalactiae
  10. Nongonococcal urethritis: C. trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum or Trichomonas vaginalis
  11. Pelvic inflammatory disease: N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis
  12. Syphilis: Treponema pallidum
  13. Trichomoniasis: Trichomonas vaginalis
  14. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Candida albicans

Testing of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

Laboratory diagnosis of some STIs require expensive technologies or the facilities of a specialist laboratory while others can be diagnosed at home or at district/general laboratories.

STIs like gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, G.vaginalis bacterial vaginosis, etc can be diagnosed using appropriate microscopy and staining techniques. Diseases like gonorrhea, chancroid can be diagnosed by culture using a selective enriched medium. Immunological methods (e.g. ELISA, ICT based tests) are now available for the diagnosis of chlamydial infections, HIV, Genital herpes infection, syphilis, etc.  PCR and molecular technologies have also been developed to diagnose some STIs like HIV.

About Acharya Tankeshwar 460 Articles
Hello, thank you for visiting my blog. I am Tankeshwar Acharya. Blogging is my passion. I am working as an Asst. Professor and Microbiologist at Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Nepal. If you want me to write about any posts that you found confusing/difficult, please mention in the comments below.


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