Cells of the Immune System
Immunology

Cells of the Immune System

The immune system consists of many different organs, tissues, and cells scattered throughout the body but connected via blood vessels or lymphatic channels. These cells communicate with each other using protein signals (cytokines, complement, and […]

Steps of Phagocytosis
Immunology

Phagocytosis: Mechanism and Steps

Last updated on May 23rd, 2021Phagocytosis is the ingestion of extracellular particulate material such as invading pathogens or dead/dying cells by phagocytic cells and is one of the important innate defense mechanisms. It is primarily […]

Structure of 5 classes of Immunoglobulins (antibodies)
Immunology

Immunoglobulin Structure and Classes

Last updated on May 23rd, 2021Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are special types of glycoprotein molecules that are secreted by well-differentiated B cells, called plasma cells. Antibodies specifically react with the antigens which stimulated their […]