Microbial Jargons and Their Meaning

When the laboratory instructor said “take the test organism and stab into the butt”, most of the students were stunned! It was that practical of Microbiology, which taught many students the importance of jargon. In [...]
Lactic acid bacteria benefits

Microorganisms with Probiotic Properties

Last updated on October 15th, 2021 Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Species of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are most commonly used as [...]

Probiotics, Prebiotics and Health Benefits

Last updated on October 15th, 2021 World Health Organization (WHO) defines “probiotics” as “live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a perceived health benefit on the host”.  These intentionally ingested microorganisms consist mainly [...]

Cell Wall–Deficient Bacteria

Last updated on June 30th, 2021 Although most prokaryotes cannot survive in nature without their cell walls, some do so naturally. These include the mycoplasmas, a group of pathogenic bacteria that causes several infectious diseases [...]

Virus: Introduction and Structural Properties

Viruses are genetic elements that cannot replicate independently of a living host cell. Host cells provide energy, metabolic intermediates needed for replication and also synthesize viral proteins. As viruses need suitable living cells to multiply, [...]

Antigen-Antibody reactions: Agglutination and types

Last updated on June 21st, 2021 General feature of antigen-antibody reactions The reaction is specific; an antigen combines only with its homologous antibody and vice versa. The specificity however is not absolute and cross reactions […]


Function of Antibodies (Immunoglobulins)

Last updated on May 23rd, 2021 The function of Antibody (Ab) refers to the biological effect that antibody has on a pathogen or its toxin. In addition to binding an antigen (Ag), antibodies participate in […]

Gram stain procedure

Gram Staining: Principle, Procedure, Results

Last updated on June 17th, 2021 Gram staining method, the most important procedure in Microbiology, was developed by Danish physician Hans Christian Gram in 1884. Gram staining is still the cornerstone of bacterial identification and taxonomic […]


API 20E Test System: Results and Interpretations

Last updated on June 21st, 2021 API (Analytical Profile Index) 20E is a biochemical panel from bioMerieux, Inc. for the identification and differentiation of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The plastic strip holds twenty mini-test chambers […]