Quality control strains

Quality Control Strains (standard strains) and their Uses

Quality control strains (standard strains) are well-characterized microorganisms with defined susceptibility or resistance profiles to the antimicrobial agent(s) tested. They are routinely used to standardize the antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) methodologies and to check the [...]

How do Probiotics work?

Probiotics are live microorganisms that are supposed to have health benefits when consumed or applied to the body in adequate amounts. Scientific evidence suggests that specific strains of probiotic microorganisms confer health benefits on the [...]

Scrub typhus: Overview, Pathogenesis and Lab Diagnosis

Scrub typhus also known as bush typhus, is an emerging infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Orientia tsutsugamushi (formerly known as Rickettsia tsutsugamushi). It is a zoonotic disease primarily affecting rodents, rabbits, and marsupials. Humans [...]

Microbial Jargons and Their Meaning

When the laboratory instructor said “take the test organism and stab into the butt”, most of the students were stunned! It was that practical of Microbiology, which taught many students the importance of jargon. In [...]
Cells of the Immune System

Cells of the Immune System

Last updated on January 4th, 2022 The immune system consists of many different organs, tissues, and cells scattered throughout the body but connected via blood vessels or lymphatic channels. These cells communicate with each other […]

Steps of Phagocytosis

Phagocytosis: Mechanism and Steps

Last updated on January 4th, 2022 Phagocytosis is the ingestion of extracellular particulate material such as invading pathogens or dead/dying cells by phagocytic cells and is one of the important innate defense mechanisms. It is […]

Gram stain procedure

Gram Staining: Principle, Procedure, Results

Last updated on June 17th, 2021 Gram staining method, the most important procedure in Microbiology, was developed by Danish physician Hans Christian Gram in 1884. Gram staining is still the cornerstone of bacterial identification and taxonomic […]


API 20E Test System: Results and Interpretations

Last updated on June 21st, 2021 API (Analytical Profile Index) 20E is a biochemical panel from bioMerieux, Inc. for the identification and differentiation of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The plastic strip holds twenty mini-test chambers […]