Quality control strains

Quality Control Strains (standard strains) and their Uses

Quality control strains (standard strains) are well-characterized microorganisms with defined susceptibility or resistance profiles to the antimicrobial agent(s) tested. They are routinely used to standardize the antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) methodologies and to check the [...]

How do Probiotics work?

Probiotics are live microorganisms that are supposed to have health benefits when consumed or applied to the body in adequate amounts. Scientific evidence suggests that specific strains of probiotic microorganisms confer health benefits on the [...]

Scrub typhus: Overview, Pathogenesis and Lab Diagnosis

Scrub typhus also known as bush typhus, is an emerging infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Orientia tsutsugamushi (formerly known as Rickettsia tsutsugamushi). It is a zoonotic disease primarily affecting rodents, rabbits, and marsupials. Humans [...]

Microbial Jargons and Their Meaning

When the laboratory instructor said “take the test organism and stab into the butt”, most of the students were stunned! It was that practical of Microbiology, which taught many students the importance of jargon. In [...]

Antigen and Factors Affecting Immunogenicity

Last updated on May 25th, 2021 The substance that induces a specific immune response and subsequently reacts with the products of specific immune response is called an antigen (it is more appropriately called an immunogen). In […]

Gram stain procedure

Gram Staining: Principle, Procedure, Results

Last updated on June 17th, 2021 Gram staining method, the most important procedure in Microbiology, was developed by Danish physician Hans Christian Gram in 1884. Gram staining is still the cornerstone of bacterial identification and taxonomic […]


API 20E Test System: Results and Interpretations

Last updated on June 21st, 2021 API (Analytical Profile Index) 20E is a biochemical panel from bioMerieux, Inc. for the identification and differentiation of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The plastic strip holds twenty mini-test chambers […]