Parasitology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of parasites and diseases caused by them. It also includes the host-parasite relationship, ecology, pathogenesis, and clinical aspects of parasitic diseases.
Hymenolepis nana is a dwarf tapeworm. It causes hymenolepiasis.
Trichrome staining is a simple yet rapid technique that produces uniformly well-stained smears of the intestinal protozoa, human cells, yeast, and artifact material.
Tenia solium, also known as pork tapeworm, causes Taeniasis, an infection that is common amongst people eating raw pork containing the cysticerci.
Ascaris infection (ascariasis) is the most common human worm infection with nearly 1 billion cases every year.
Naegleria fowleri, commonly referred to as the “brain-eating amoeba” is a small, free-living water and soil amebae capable of causing opportunistic infections in humans.
There are five major types of hosts depending upon their role in the life cycle of the parasites.
A parasite is a living organism that lives upon and derives nutrients directly from a host without giving any benefit to the host.
Toxoplasmosis causes mild infections in immunocompetent individuals but can cause congenital infections if a mother acquire primary infection during pregnancy
Sabin-Feldman dye test detects and quantitates specific antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii at low levels. It differentiates acute and latent infection.
Detection of specific antigens present in the sample (blood, urine, or CSF) using specific antibodies is the mainstay for the rapid diagnosis of infections.
Foldscope is a paper microscope that is built by folding the paper in an origami fashion, it does not require electricity to operate.
Giemsa stain is a type of Romanowsky stain, primarily designed for the demonstration of malarial parasites in blood smears.
Detection of the parasites or their particular stages (ova/egg, cyst, larva or trophozoite) in the stool specimen is diagnostic.
Three main groups of antigens detected by commercially available malaria RDTs are pLDH, HRP-2 and aldolase.
Giardia lamblia is a protozoan flagellates that causes Giardiasis. Ova and parasite examination is a routine method of diagnosis.
Entero test involves swallowing a string with a weighted gelatin capsule, to obtain a sample from the upper part of the small intestine.
Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebic dysentery (bloody diarrhea). Presence of trophozoite with ingested RBCs is diagnostic.
Kato Katz technique is used for qualitative and semi-quantitative diagnosis of intestinal helminthic infestations; especially Schistosoma spp.
Causative agent of Trichomoniasis, Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite and is transmitted sexually. It has a pear-shaped trophozoite.
Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium is used to isolate Leishmania. Promastigotes are seen in Giemsa stains the culture filtrate.
QBC is based on acridine orange staining of centrifuged peripheral blood samples in a microhematocrit tube and examination under UV light.
Bacillary dysentery also known as shigellosis is a bacterial disease whereas Amoebic dysentery (also known as amoebiasis) is caused by a invasive protozoan parasite.
Taeniasis is caused by both Taenia solium and Taenia saginata but only infections with Taenia solium may cause cysticercosis. Find out why
FOBT is a lab test used to check stool samples for hidden blood or blood products that may arise due to a small amount of bleeding in the GI tract.
Saline wet mount is made by mixing a small quantity of feces in a drop of saline placed on a clean glass slide. The smear is then examined under a microscope.
Buffy coat suspension is a concentrated leukocyte suspension which contains WBCs and platelets.
To be a sickle cell trait (AS) in a malarious environment appears to be better than not having sickle genes at all (AA), or having 2 sickle genes (SS).
As the eggs are mostly deposited on the perianal area scotch tape preparation is used to isolate and identify the eggs of pinworm.
Demonstration of microfilarae in the peripheral blood using thick or thin smear, QBC, or membrane filtration method is diagnostic.
Formal ether sedimentation technique is a stool concentration technique that is commonly done in diagnostic laboratories.
Detection of amastigote stage (LD bodies), rk39 and DAT tests are commonly used methods for the diagnosis of Kala-azar.
Microscopic examination (thick-thin blood smear stained with giemsa stain) remains the “gold standard” for laboratory confirmation of malaria.
Asexual life cycle (cycle of schizogny) of malarial parasite occurs in main. Schizont, merozoites, and gametocytes are important stages.