Virology is the branch of microbiology that deals with the study of viruses. It is focused on the structure, classification, and evolution of viruses, habitat, host-pathogen interactions, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment.
Virology also provides an insight into the application of viruses for research and vaccine development purposes.
Viruses are strict obligate intracellular parasites, incapable of replication without living hosts. Due to the lack of independent replication capability, viruses are considered non-living things.
Chickenpox and monkeypox share some symptoms but there are some major differences between these two diseases
The monkeypox virus is the causative agent of monkeypox. It was first reported from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
Hepatitis C is an RNA virus of the genus hepacivirus belonging to the family Flaviviridae. Hepatitis from this virus progresses to chronic condition.
Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and archaea. They have a simple structure with genetic materials covered in a protein coat.
Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) is a DNA virus that belongs to the α-herpesvirus family.
Hepatitis B virus is a DNA virus belonging to the family hepadnavirus and is responsible for causing acute and chronic hepatitis
Hepatitis A virus is an RNA virus that is the leading cause of infectious hepatitis worldwide and transmitted by feco-oral route.
Live, attenuated vaccines and inactivated vaccines are two basic types of vaccines used to protect susceptible individuals from infectious diseases.
Viruses are genetic elements that cannot replicate independently of a living host cell.
A low Ct indicates a high concentration of viral genetic material, which is typically associated with a high risk of infectivity.
Ebola virus disease, HIV, Influenza, Small Pox and COVID-19 can be taken as five deadliest viral disease of this century.
Antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2 are generally less sensitive than RT-PCR and other NAATs.
mRNA vaccines teach our cells how to make a protein. This protein triggers an immune response inside our bodies.
Bacteriophage is a type of virus that infects and replicates within bacteria and archaea. Current use includes vector and potential antibacterial agent.
Cytopathic effect (CPE) refers to morphological changes in host cells because of viral infection. It may aid in viral disease diagnosis.
Shell vial culture involves inoculation of the clinical specimen on cell monolayer for rapid detection of viruses in vitro.
When microbial toxins and specific antibodies combine and the active portion of the toxins are blocked, neutralization occurs.
Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA) is a semi-quantitative, sensitive, and rapid test to detect specific antibodies or antigens.
Embryonated chicken eggs are used for the cultivation of some viruses. The viruses grow in the cells of the embryo and membranes.
Nasopharyngeal swab is the preferred sample for the diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), SARS-CoV-2, influenza virus infections.
Manufacturers have developed commercial tests for the diagnosis of COVID-19 based on unique gene detection, antigen detection or serological assays.
SARS-CoV-2, a SS-RNA virus is a member of the Coronaviridae family that causes COVID-19 pandemic.
Viral Transport Media (VTM) are suitable for collection, transport, maintenance and long-term freeze storage of clinical specimens containing viruses.
Detection of specific antigens present in the sample (blood, urine, or CSF) using specific antibodies is the mainstay for the rapid diagnosis of infections.
Lysis of the bacteriophage is indicated by the formation of a zone of clearing or plaque within the lawn of bacteria.
RSV is a most common cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants and young children.
Cells used to culture are fibroblast, lymphocytes, cells from cardiac and skeletal tissues, cells from liver, breast, skin, kidney, and tumor cells.
Western blotting or immunoblotting enables researchers to identify the specific protein from a mixture of proteins.
For many years, scientific communities, the press, and the general public blamed Gaëtan Dugas as a "Patient Zero" but recently he was exonerated.
All viruses must synthesize positive-strand mRNAs from their genomes, in order to produce proteins and replicate themselves.
Paramyxoviruses include the most important agents of viral respiratory tract infections notably Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Measles, Mumps, and Parainfluenza virus.
Detection of IgG and IgM are accessible methods but NS1 antigen detection, genome detection and virus isolation are sensitive methods.
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus. It is a member of Flavivirus and Aedes mosquitoes act as vector.
Monospot test is a heterophile antibody test for the rapid screening of infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein–Barr virus.
Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis.
Antibodies against the measles virus neutralize its hemagglutinins, so preventing agglutination of RBCs by these agglutinins.
Oropharyngeal (OP) and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and nasopharyngeal wash/aspirate are the common upper respiratory tract specimens.
Measles virus is a member of the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Measles is usually a disease of childhood (3-10 years).
Direct detection of antigen, or gene of virus or isolation of the virus or detection of IgM antibody or four-fold rise in antibody titre.
HIV VIRUS, Co receptors, CCR5, CXCR4, CD4 positive T cells,
Influenza virus has two ways to change — one slow and one fast. The slow change is known as drift and the fast change is called shift.
Influenza virus changes every time it reproduces, generating progeny that are ever so slightly different from the parent.
HBsAg is present early in acute infection, disappears with a resolution of infection, and persists in chronic infection.
Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) are expressed by infected hepatocytes only.
Sometimes the name of the microorganisms or diseases are derived from the place of the first isolation of the organism or occurrence of the disease.
Lab diagnosis of HIV is made by measuring anti-HIV antibodies in the serum of the suspected patient by ELISA or RDTS, detecting P24 antigen or via western blot technique.
Continuous cell line has acquired the ability to proliferate indefinitely through mutations.
Mumps is an acute self-limited viral infection of the children that primarily affects salivary glands.
Influenza (flu) is caused by influenza viruses, a member of the orthomyxovirus family. There are three types of influenza (flu) viruses: A, B, and C.
Rabies is a viral disease most often transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. Rabies virus is a negative-sense, non-segmented, SS RNA virus.