Molecular Biology

Molecular biology is the field of biology concerned with the study of the composition, structure, and interactions of cellular molecules that are essential to life.

Molecular biology is mainly focused on nucleic acids (e.g., DNA and RNA) and proteins and emphasizes exploiting and manipulating the target genetic sequence.

Mutation and Types of Mutations

Mutation and Types of Mutations

A mutation is a change in the nucleotide sequence of a gene. This gives rise to a new genetic trait or a changed genotype.

Southern Blotting: Principle, Steps, Applications

Southern Blotting: Principle, Steps, Applications

Southern blotting detects a specific DNA sequence in a blood or tissue sample. Sample of DNA are cut into fragments using restriction enzymes and separated.

Real-time PCR: Principles and Applications

Real-time PCR: Principles and Applications

Amplification and simultaneous quantitation of a target DNA is done in same PCR machine and accumulation of amplicon is monitored in real-time.

Nested PCR: Principle and Applications

Nested PCR: Principle and Applications

Two primer sets (outer primer and inner or nested primer) directed against the same target are used to amplify the target gene sequence.

Multiplex PCR: Principle, Applications

Multiplex PCR: Principle, Applications

In multiplex PCR, more than one target sequence are amplified using multiple sets of primers within a single PCR mixture.

Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR: Principles, Applications

Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR: Principles, Applications

In reverse-transcriptase PCR, RNA is first reverse-transcribed into cDNA, which is then used as the template for second PCR amplification.

Lac Operon: Mechanism and Regulation

Lac Operon: Mechanism and Regulation

Lac operon is a well-known example of an inducible gene network that regulates the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli.

Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE): Steps, Applications

Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE): Steps, Applications

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the “gold standard” fingerprinting method used by scientists to produce a DNA fingerprint of bacteria.

Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: Principle, Procedure, Results

Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: Principle, Procedure, Results

Agarose gel electrophoresis is an easy and efficient method to separate, identify, and purify DNA molecules.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR):  Steps, Types, Applications

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR):  Steps, Types, Applications

Molecular technology to amplify a single or few copies of a piece of DNA to generate millions copies of DNA.

Conjugation: Transfer of Chromosomal DNA by HFr Strains

Conjugation: Transfer of Chromosomal DNA by HFr Strains

Donor cells in which F factor are integrated can transfer adjacent chromosomal gene to recipient cells in a high frequency.

Mechanism of Conjugation in Bacteria: The transfer of F Plasmid

Mechanism of Conjugation in Bacteria: The transfer of F Plasmid

Transfer of genetic material from one bacteria (male) to another bacteria (female) through mating (via conjugation tube made by sex pili).

Gene Transfer Mechanism in Bacteria and It’s types

Gene Transfer Mechanism in Bacteria and It’s types

Three broad mechanisms mediate the efficient movement of DNA between cells- conjugation, transduction, and transformation.

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Specialized transduction: Mechanism

It involves transfer of only a particular genetic segment of the bacterial chromosome that is present adjacent to the phage DNA.

Generalized transduction: Mechanism

Generalized transduction: Mechanism

Transfer of any part of the donor bacterial genome into the recipient bacteria with the help of bacteriophage.