Molecular biology is the field of biology concerned with the study of the composition, structure, and interactions of cellular molecules that are essential to life.
Molecular biology is mainly focused on nucleic acids (e.g., DNA and RNA) and proteins and emphasizes exploiting and manipulating the target genetic sequence.
In general understanding, the RNA is mainly of 3 types; mRNA (messenger RNA), tRNA (transfer RNA), and rRNA (ribosomal RNA).
Microarray scanner is laboratory equipment that helps measure the fluorescent areas of DNA microarray, revealing information about the activity of thousands of genes.
Designing a good pair of PCR primers is probably the single most important factor for successful PCR reactions.
Northern blotting is the process of blotting separated RNA in a membrane and hybridizing it with the probe, and quantifying the RNA.
LAMP technique is based on strand displacement reaction and a stem-loop structure formation under isothermal conditions.
A mutation is a change in the nucleotide sequence of a gene. This gives rise to a new genetic trait or a changed genotype.
Southern blotting detects a specific DNA sequence in a blood or tissue sample. Sample of DNA are cut into fragments using restriction enzymes and separated.
Amplification and simultaneous quantitation of a target DNA is done in same PCR machine and accumulation of amplicon is monitored in real-time.
Two primer sets (outer primer and inner or nested primer) directed against the same target are used to amplify the target gene sequence.
In multiplex PCR, more than one target sequence are amplified using multiple sets of primers within a single PCR mixture.
In reverse-transcriptase PCR, RNA is first reverse-transcribed into cDNA, which is then used as the template for second PCR amplification.
Lac operon is a well-known example of an inducible gene network that regulates the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli.
Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the “gold standard” fingerprinting method used by scientists to produce a DNA fingerprint of bacteria.
Agarose gel electrophoresis is an easy and efficient method to separate, identify, and purify DNA molecules.
Molecular technology to amplify a single or few copies of a piece of DNA to generate millions copies of DNA.
Donor cells in which F factor are integrated can transfer adjacent chromosomal gene to recipient cells in a high frequency.
Transfer of genetic material from one bacteria (male) to another bacteria (female) through mating (via conjugation tube made by sex pili).
Three broad mechanisms mediate the efficient movement of DNA between cells- conjugation, transduction, and transformation.
It involves transfer of only a particular genetic segment of the bacterial chromosome that is present adjacent to the phage DNA.