B-cell response to T-dependent Ag requires assistance from helper T-cells but T-independent Ag can activate B cells without that help.
Innate Immunity is present right from the birth but acquired or adaptive immunity is acquired during the course of life.
Primary immune response to Ag occurs on the first occasion. Subsequent encounter of B and T cells with same Ag leads to secondary response.
SEM provides detailed images of the surfaces of cells whereas TEM provides details about internal composition, morphology, crystallization.
MHC molecules bind peptide fragments derived from pathogens and display them on the cell surface for recognition by the appropriate T cells.
Bacillary dysentery also known as shigellosis is a bacterial disease whereas Amoebic dysentery (also known as amoebiasis) is caused by a invasive protozoan parasite.
Taeniasis is caused by both Taenia solium and Taenia saginata but only infections with Taenia solium may cause cysticercosis. Find out why
Micrococcus is lysostaphin and furazolidone resistant, bacitracin sensitive and microdase positive. Find the results of Staphylococcus.
Neisseria meningitidis is capsulated and ferment maltose (MM), whereas Neisseria gonorrhoeae is non-capsulated and do not ferment maltose.
Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus with a nuclear membrane enclosing multiple chromosomes, while prokaryotic cells have a single chromosome.
Staphylococci are catalase positive, gram positive cocci in clusters but Streptococci are catalase negative and may appear in pairs or chains.
Gram positive bacteria appear purple and gram-negative bacteria appear pink when stained by Gram-staining methods.
Bacterial toxins are broadly divided into two general categories: exotoxins (secreted outside the cell) and endotoxins (LPS).