Colony Morphology of Bacteria; How to describe Bacterial Colonies?

Last updated on May 10th, 2020

Bacteria grow on solid media as colonies. A colony is defined as a visible mass of microorganisms all originating from a single mother cell. Key features of these bacterial colonies serve as important criteria for their identification.

Characteristics of Bacterial colonies
Characteristics of bacterial colonies

Colony morphology can sometimes be useful in bacterial identification. Colonies are described on the basis of size, shape, texture, elevation, pigmentation, and effect on growth medium.

In this blog post, you will find common criteria that are used to characterize the bacterial growth.

  1. Colony Shape: It includes form, elevation, and margin of the bacterial colony.
    1. Form of the bacterial colony: – The form refers to the shape of the colony. These forms represent the most common colony shapes you are likely to encounter. e.g. circular, irregular, filamentous, rhizoid, etc.Elevation of bacterial colony
    2. Elevation of the bacterial colony: This describes the “side view” of a colony. These are the most common. e.g. flat, raised, umbonate (having a knobby protuberance), crateriform, convex, pulvinate (cushion-shaped)
    3. Margin of bacterial colony: The margin or edge of a colony may be an important characteristic in identifying organisms.   Common examples are entire (smooth), irregular, undulate (wavy), lobate, curled, filiform, etc.
    4. Colonies that are irregular in shape and/or have irregular margins are likely to be motile organisms. Highly motile organisms swarmed over the culture media, such as Proteus spp.
    5. Size of the bacterial colony: The size of the colony can be a useful characteristic for identification. The diameter of a representative colony may be measured in millimeters or described in relative terms such as pinpoint, small, medium, large.  Colonies larger than about 5 mm are likely to be motile organisms.

Appearance of the colony surface:  Bacterial colonies are frequently shiny and smooth in appearance. Other surface descriptions might be: dull (opposite of glistening), veined, rough, wrinkled (or shriveled), glistening.

Mixed growth of mucoid Lactose fermenting colonies and NLF colonies in MacConkey Agar
Mixed growth of mucoid Lactose fermenting colonies and NLF colonies in MacConkey Agar

Consistency/Texture: Several terms that may be appropriate for describing the texture or consistency of bacterial growth  are: dry, moist, viscid (sticks to loop, hard to get off), brittle/friable (dry, breaks apart), mucoid (sticky, mucus-like)

Color of the colonies (pigmentation):  Some bacteria produce pigment when they grow in the medium e.g., green pigment produces by Pseudomonas aeruginosa,  buff-colored colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in L.J medium, red-colored colonies of Serratia marcescens.

Opacity of the bacterial colony: Is the colony transparent (clear), opaque (not transparent or clear), translucent (almost clear, but distorted vision–like looking through frosted glass), iridescent (changing colors in reflected light).

Some important terminologies

Draughtsman colonies

Draughtmans colonies of S. pneumoniae
Draughtmans colonies of S. pneumoniae

Young colonies of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) have raised center but as the culture ages, they become flattened, with a depressed central part and raised edges giving them a ringed appearance also known as ‘draughtsman colonies’.

About Acharya Tankeshwar 467 Articles
Hello, thank you for visiting my blog. I am Tankeshwar Acharya. Blogging is my passion. I am working as an Asst. Professor and Microbiologist at Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Nepal. If you want me to write about any posts that you found confusing/difficult, please mention in the comments below.


  1. Can you explain how or why certain microorganisms grow into a crateriform colony instead of let say a raised colony? What is the explanation behind each form, elevation and margin?

  2. Please I need to carry out a virology project. I collected a sample from an object using a swab stick and then I added normal saline water to the swab stick to get a virus suspension. I want to prepare a cell culture using cells obtained from a human blood but I don’t know how to do this. I want to add my virus suspension to the cell culture and then observe under the microscope the changes the virus has caused on the cell shape and number. Please can I get an instruction from you on how to go about this.

  3. Thank you sir
    must one have isolated colonies on an agar plate before contuing with antibihgram and must they also be leucocytes on the wet mount and or gram to confirm the bacteria on the gram and culture medium,

  4. Thank you sir, You are doing great work.
    Please write also about Satellite colonies of bacteria that appeared during antibiotic selection of transgenic bacteria

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