Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Serotypes and Their Significance

Last updated on June 21st, 2021Serotypes are groups within a single species of microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses, which share distinctive surface structures. For example, all Salmonella bacteria look alike under a microscope but […]


Antigens in disease diagnosis

Last updated on May 25th, 2021Detection of specific antigens present in the sample (blood, urine, CSF, or stool) using immunologic methods such as precipitin tests, particle agglutination tests, immunofluorescence, immunochromatographic or enzyme immunoassays are the […]


Antibodies in Disease Diagnosis

Last updated on June 1st, 2021Antibodies are glycoproteins produced by our body in response to invading organisms or toxins (antigens). When a pathogen (bacteria, virus, protozoa, or helminth) enters our body and anyhow manages to […]