Beta-lactam antibiotics are those that contain 4-member, nitrogen-containing, beta-lactam ring at the core of their structure. This ring mimics the shape of the terminal D-Ala-D-Ala peptide sequence that serves as the substrate for cell wall transpeptidases. At present, there are four major beta-lactam subgroups.
|Penicillins||Penicillin, Ampicillin, Piperacillin|
|Cephalosporins||Cefazolin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime, Cefepime|
Mechanism of Action of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics
The beta-lactam ring is key to the mode of action of these drugs that target and inhibit cell wall synthesis by binding the enzymes involved in the synthesis. These enzymes are anchored in the cell membrane and as a group is referred to as penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Bacterial species may contain between 4-6 different types of PBPs. The PBPs involved in cell wall cross-linking (i.e.,transpeptidases) are often the most critical for survival.
The 4-member ring of beta-lactam antibiotics gives these compounds a three-dimensional shape that mimics the D-Ala-D-Ala peptide terminus that serves as the natural substrate for transpeptidase activity during cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. Tight binding of these beta-lactam drugs to the transpeptidase active site inhibits cell wall synthesis. Death results from osmotic instability caused by faulty cell wall synthesis, or the binding of the beta-lactam to PBP may trigger a series of events that lead to autolysis and death of the cell.
Beta-lactam agents are active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria but effectiveness varies owing to structural differences in cell-wall structure (e.g., the outer membrane present in gram-negative but not gram-positive bacteria) and PBP content.
Resistance mechanisms against Beta-Lactams Antibiotics
Three pathways play an important role to confer resistance to beta-lactams. They are; enzymatic destruction of the antibiotics, altered antibiotic targets, or decreased uptake of the drug.
|Resistance pathway||Specific mechanism||Examples|
|Enzymatic destruction of antibiotics||β-lactamase enzymes destroy β-lactam ring so the antibiotic cannot bind to penicillin-binding protein (PBP) and interfere with cell wall synthesis||Staphylococcal resistance to penicillin. Resistance of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to several penicillins, cephalosporins, and aztreonam.|
|Altered target||Mutational changes in original PBPs or acquisition of different PBPs that do not bind β-lactams sufficiently to inhibit cell wall synthesis||Staphylococcal resistance to methicillin and other available β-lactams. Penicillin and cephalosporin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and viridans streptococci.|
|Decreased uptake||Porin channels (through which β-lactams cross the outer membrane to reach PBP of gram-negative bacteria) change in number or character so that β-lactam uptake is substantially diminished.||Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance to imipenem.|
Enzyme destruction of the antibiotics
Destruction of beta-lactams by beta-lactamase enzyme-producing bacteria is by far the most important method of resistance. Beta-lactamases open the beta-lactam ring and the altered structure of the drug can no longer bind to PBPs and is no longer to inhibit cell wall synthesis. But not all β-lactams are susceptible to hydrolysis by every β-lactamase. For example, staphylococcal beta-lactamase can readily hydrolyze penicillin and penicillin derivative but fails to hydrolyze many cephalosporins and imipenem.
Do you know?
Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria produce β-lactamase. β-lactamases produced by gram-positive bacteria are secreted into the surrounding environment but that of gram-negative bacteria remains in the periplasmic space.
Altered antibiotic targets
The organisms change or acquire a gene that code for altered PBPs. β-lactams lack sufficient affinity for the altered PBP, thus can not prevent their function (i.e. cell wall synthesis continues even in the presence of antibiotics. For example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) developed resistance to methicillin and all other β-lactams using this mechanism.
Decreased uptake of the drug
Decreased uptake of the drug contributes significantly to β-lactam resistance in gram-negative bacteria. This happens because of the changes in the number, or characteristics of the outer membrane porins (through which β-lactams reach to inner peptidoglycan layer of gram-negative bacteria). E.g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance to imipenem.
Tackling resistance to Beta-Lactam Antibiotics?
- Protecting beta-lactam ring from beta-lactamases by molecular alterations of beta-lactam rig. For example, methicillin and oxacillin which are close molecular derivatives of penicillin are resistant to staphylococcal β-lactamase.
- Combining beta-lactamase inhibitors and beta-lactam with antimicrobial activity. Beta-lactam combination compromised of a β-lactam with antimicrobial activity (e.g., ampicillin, amoxicillin, piperacillin) and a β-lactam without antimicrobial activity but is capable of binding and inhibiting β-lactamases (e.g., sulbactam, clavulanate, tazobactam). The β-lactamase inhibitor avidly and irreversibly binds to the β-lactamase and renders the enzyme incapable of hydrolysis, thus allowing another β-lactam (β-lactamase susceptible beta-lactam) to exert its antimicrobial effect. Examples of these beta-lactam combinations include
- amoxicillin/clavulanate and,
Such combinations are only effective against organisms that produce β-lactamases that are bound by the inhibitor; they have little effect on the resistance that is mediated by altered PBPs.
- Challenging the bacteria with antimicrobial having a different mechanism of action. For example use of vancomycin (non-beta-lactam agent) for MRSA.
References and further reading
- Koneman’s Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology
- Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, Forbes, 11th edition