Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, an infectious venereal disease in humans. Primary, secondary, tertiary latent stages.
Dark field microscopy is the most specific and sensitive technique to diagnose syphilis when an active chancre or condyloma lata is present.
RPR test is a macroscopic, nontreponemal flocculation card test used to screen for syphilis. RPR test measures IgM and IgG antibodies to lipoidal material.
HIV VIRUS, Co receptors, CCR5, CXCR4, CD4 positive T cells,
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a gram-negative kidney-shaped diplococci. It causes gonorrhea, a sexually transmissted infection.
Lab diagnosis of HIV is made by measuring anti-HIV antibodies in the serum of the suspected patient by ELISA or RDTS, detecting P24 antigen or via western blot technique.