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MCQ Bacteriology

MCQ: Microbiology

If a scientist actively researches the frequency and distribution of the diseases, he is said to be a: a. Mycologist    b. Immunologist            c. Etiologist       d. Epidemiologist e. Ecologist The biggest obstacle in the acceptance and […]


Cell Mediated Immunity

CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY: Antibody-independent immunity, mediated by TH1 cells. Examples: Type-IV Hypersensitivity responses, responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other intracellular pathogens. MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION: IFN-gamma, secreted by TH1 cells, activates macrophages. Increase expression of MHC-II molecules in […]

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Cytokines: Types and Functions

Cytokines are bioactive hormones, normally glycoproteins, which exercise a wide variety of biological effects on those cells which express the appropriate receptors. Cytokines are designated by their cellular origin such that Monokines include those interleukins […]

Lab diagnosis of Viral Disease

Laboratory diagnosis of HIV Infection

Tests to diagnose HIV infection can be divided into different categories: virus culture, antigen detection, detection of antibodies and viral genome amplification (PCR). Sample Collection and Transport For standard HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody testing a single tube […]

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Continuous cell line

At any time during the culture of a cell strain, cells in the culture may become transformed, meaning that they are no longer subject to crisis and senescence but can be passage indefinitely i.e. they […]