Immunology

Cell Mediated Immunity

Last updated on May 13th, 2021CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY: Antibody-independent immunity, mediated by TH1 cells.Examples: Type-IV Hypersensitivity responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other intracellular pathogens. MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION: IFN-gamma, secreted by TH1 cells, activates macrophages. Increase expression of […]

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Immunology

Cytokines: Types and Functions

Last updated on May 13th, 2021Cytokines are bioactive hormones, normally glycoproteins, which exercise a wide variety of biological effects on those cells which express the appropriate receptors. Cytokines are designated by their cellular origin such […]

Lab Diagnosis of Viral Disease

Laboratory diagnosis of HIV Infection

Last updated on May 22nd, 2020 Tests to diagnose HIV infection can be divided into different categories: virus culture, antigen detection, detection of antibodies, and viral genome amplification (PCR). Sample Collection and Transport For standard […]

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Virology

Continuous Cell Line

Last updated on May 22nd, 2021At any time during the culture of a cell strain, cells in the culture may become transformed, meaning that they are no longer subject to crisis and senescence but can […]