Bacteria (singular-bacterium) are unicellular (single cell) microorganisms, and have a simple cell structure consisting of:
Although most prokaryotes cannot survive in nature without their cell walls, some do so naturally. For example, mycoplasma and thermoplasma.
Plasmids are extra-chromosomal genetic elements that replicate independently of the host chromosome. The codes for drug resistance, virulence
Gram positive bacteria appear purple and gram-negative bacteria appear pink when stained by Gram-staining methods.
Peptidoglycan consists of carbohydrate backbone composed of alternating units of NAG and NAM molecules attached through β-1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Transposons, also called 'jumping genes' are mobile genetic elements. Barbara McClintock got Nobel Prize for the study of transposons.
Concentrated deposits of certain substances which are presented/located in the cytoplasm of certain bacteria.
Teichoic acids are fibers of glycerol phosphate or ribitol phosphate and is located in the cell-wall of gram-positive bacteria.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer also called the outer membrane is the outermost layer present in the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria.
Pili or fimbriae are hair-like filaments that help pathogen in adherence to host cells. Sex pili play role in conjugation.
Bacterial toxins are broadly divided into two general categories: exotoxins (secreted outside the cell) and endotoxins (LPS).
Flagella are long, whiplike appendages that move the bacteria toward nutrients and other attractants
Bacterial spores are highly resistant, dormant structures formed in response to adverse environmental conditions