Cell wall deficient bacteria
Microbiology for Beginners

Cell Wall–Deficient Bacteria

Last updated on June 30th, 2021Although most prokaryotes cannot survive in nature without their cell walls, some do so naturally. These include the mycoplasmas, a group of pathogenic bacteria that causes several infectious diseases of […]


Plasmids: Properties, Types and Functions

Last updated on June 26th, 2021Plasmids are extra-chromosomal genetic elements that replicate independently of the host chromosome. They are small, circular (some are linear), double-stranded DNA molecules (mostly) that exist in bacterial cells and in […]


Cytoplasmic Granules in Bacteria

Last updated on June 17th, 2021Concentrated deposits of certain substances which are presented/located in the cytoplasm of certain bacteria are known as cytoplasmic granules or inclusion bodies. They serve as storage areas for nutrients, e.g. […]

Teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid in Peptidoglycan layer

Teichoic Acid: Structure, Functions

Last updated on June 17th, 2021Many gram-positive bacteria have acidic components called teichoic acids embedded in their cell wall. Teichoic acids were discovered in 1958 by Armstrong and co-authors. The term teichoic acid encompasses a […]


Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Layer

Last updated on June 18th, 2021Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer also called the outer membrane is the outermost layer present only in the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria.  Braun’s lipoprotein tightly links this outer membrane of the […]


Bacterial Spores

Last updated on June 21st, 2021Bacterial spores are highly resistant, dormant structures (i.e. no metabolic activity) formed in response to adverse environmental conditions. When vegetative cells of certain bacteria such as Bacillus spp and Clostridium […]