Fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) test is an indirect fluorescent antibody technique used as a confirmatory test for syphilis. FTA-ABS is the first serological test (cardiolipin or specific treponemal) to become positive following infection i.e., 3-4 weeks after Infection.
This test is inexpensive confirmatory test performed in reference public health laboratories. FTA-ABS test results is positive in most patients with primary syphilis and the test result remains positive for life so FTA-ABS test for syphilis cannot be used to determine the response to treatment.
FTA-ABS Test Principle
Serum from patients suspected of having syphilis because of previous positive VDRL or RPR test is diluted in 1:5 sorbent (patients’ serum is absorbed with treponemes other than Treponema pallidum to remove nonspecific antibodies).
This absorbed serum is layered on a microscope slide which contains fixed T. pallidum subspecies pallidum. If the patient’s serum contains antibody, the antibody will coat the treponeme. Next, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled antihuman immunoglobulin is added; this combines with the patient’s IgG and IgM antibodies that are adhering to T. pallidum, and results in a visible test reaction when examined by fluorescence microscopy. FTA-ABS test should not be used as a primary screening procedure.
Sensitivity of Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Test
- Primary Syphilis: 85%
- Secondary Syphilis: 100%
- Late Syphilis: 98%
Specimen: Serum is the most appropriate specimen for the FTA-ABS test; however, spinal f