Ambler classification of beta-lactamases
Antimicrobial Resistance

ESBL and Classification of β-lactamases

Last updated on June 21st, 2021ESBL stands for extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, i.e. a group of enzymes produced by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria which can hydrolyze all β- lactam agents except carbapenems and cephamycins. ESBLs belong […]

Cells of the Immune System
Immunology

Cells of the Immune System

The immune system consists of many different organs, tissues, and cells scattered throughout the body but connected via blood vessels or lymphatic channels. These cells communicate with each other using protein signals (cytokines, complement, and […]

Mucor has a columella but no apophysis whereas Lichtheimia has both a columella and apophysis.
Lab Diagnosis of Fungal Disease

Laboratory Diagnosis of Mucormycosis

Last updated on June 14th, 2021Mucormycosis is a rare and life-threatening fungal disease caused by a group of fungi collectively known as mucormycetes. Since the disease is very fatal, timely diagnosis is crucial for treatment, […]

CT Values
Lab Diagnosis of Viral Disease

Ct Value in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR

Last updated on June 14th, 2021The cycle threshold (Ct) can be defined as the thermal cycle number needed to amplify viral RNA at which the fluorescent signal exceeds that of the background and thus passes the […]