Teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid in Peptidoglycan layer

Teichoic Acid: Structure, Functions

Last updated on June 17th, 2021Many gram-positive bacteria have acidic components called teichoic acids embedded in their cell wall. Teichoic acids were discovered in 1958 by Armstrong and co-authors. The term teichoic acid encompasses a […]


Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Layer

Last updated on June 18th, 2021Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer also called the outer membrane is the outermost layer present only in the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria.  Braun’s lipoprotein tightly links this outer membrane of the […]


Bacterial Spores

Last updated on June 21st, 2021Bacterial spores are highly resistant, dormant structures (i.e. no metabolic activity) formed in response to adverse environmental conditions. When vegetative cells of certain bacteria such as Bacillus spp and Clostridium […]