Campylobacter Jejuni: Disease, Properties, Lab Diagnosis

By Acharya Tankeshwar •  Updated: 05/04/22 •  3 min read

Campylobacter usually causes diarrhea (often bloody). It is the most common cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, enterocolitis, especially in children. It causes systemic infection (rarely) in children and debilitated adults. Systemic infections (bacteremia), mostly by Campylobacter intestinalis.

Drug Resistant Campylobacter serious threat to human being
Drug Resistant Campylobacter serious threat to human being

Drug-resistant Campylobacter is one of the top 18 drug-resistant threats to the United States. CDC has categorized it under “Serious concern”.

Important properties of Campylobacter jejuni:

Campylobacter: Amphitrichous (bipolar) flagella
Campylobacter: Amphitrichous (bipolar) flagella

Disease Transmission

  1. Source: Cattle, chicken, dogs, etc
  2. Mode of transmission: Faecal-oral route {food (milk or meat products) and water contaminated with animal feces}. Human to human transmission can occur but is less frequent. 

Reservoir of infection: Domestic animals such as cattle, chickens, dogs, etc.

Campylobacteriosis

  1. Symptoms (within 2-5 days of exposure):
    • Watery foul-smelling diarrhea (may be bloody)
    • nausea and vomiting (may be seen)
    • cramping
    • severe abdominal pain and
    • fever
  2. Can be treated with antibiotics
  3. Usually, self-limiting disease that typically lasts about one week.
  4. Some infected persons do not have any symptoms.

Campylobacter infections are also associated with some autoimmune diseases:

  1. Guillain-Barré syndrome
  2. Reactive arthritis
  3. Reiter’s syndrome
Mechanism of Guilian-Barre Syndrome
Mechanism of Guillain-Barré Syndrome

Guillain-Barré Syndrome

GI infection with C. jejuni is associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome

Reactive arthritis (Reiter’s syndrome)

  1. Infection with C. jejuni is also associated with reactive arthritis (Reiter’s syndrome)
  2. Painful swelling of joints often the knees and/or ankles.
  3. Other bacteria e.g., Chlamydia trachomatis, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia also cause reactive arthritis.

Pathogenesis

Campylobacter jejuni produces enterotoxins and cytotoxins.

Laboratory diagnosis

Campylobacter jejuni: Curve, S shaped gram negative bacteria
Campylobacter jejuni: Curve, S shaped gram negative bacteria

Specimen: Diarrhoeal or a dysenteric specimen containing blood, pus, and mucus. If immediate processing is not feasible specimen can be refrigerated up to 24 hours before culture as the organism are resistant to cold temperature.

Note: Campylobacter intestinalis does not grow at 42°C, but grows at 25°C and is resistant to nalidixic acid.

Drugs of choice for Campylobacter infection: Erythromycin or ciprofloxacin is used successfully in Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis.

Acharya Tankeshwar

Hello, thank you for visiting my blog. I am Tankeshwar Acharya. Blogging is my passion. As an asst. professor, I am teaching microbiology and immunology to medical and nursing students at PAHS, Nepal. I have been working as a microbiologist at Patan hospital for more than 10 years.

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