Infectious diseases can be prevented by using immunizations (also called vaccination) that induce either active or passive immunity. Active immunity is induced by vaccines prepared from pathogens or their products. Passive immunity is provided by the administration of preformed antibodies.
The term ‘vaccination’ is derived from ‘Vaccinia’, the first-ever vaccine (smallpox vaccine) which protects against smallpox. Vaccines can be categorized into six different types based on the process used to make them. These are;
A personalized vaccines has the potential to create the next golden age in the field of immunization and vaccinology.
Adjuvants are ingredients used in some vaccines to enhance the immunogenicity of antigens (immunogens).
Live, attenuated vaccines and inactivated vaccines are two basic types of vaccines used to protect susceptible individuals from infectious diseases.
mRNA vaccines teach our cells how to make a protein. This protein triggers an immune response inside our bodies.
Vaccinations begin early, but regular doses continue through the first several years of childhood, with periodic updates and the addition of a few new vaccinations later on.