Lab Diagnosis of Viral Disease

Hepatitis B: Structure, Pathogenesis, and Diagnosis

Hepatitis B: Structure, Pathogenesis, and Diagnosis

Hepatitis B virus is a DNA virus belonging to the family hepadnavirus and is responsible for causing acute and chronic hepatitis

Ct Value in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR

Ct Value in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR

A low Ct indicates a high concentration of viral genetic material, which is typically associated with a high risk of infectivity.

Antigen Testing for COVID-19: Principle, Procedure, Results

Antigen Testing for COVID-19: Principle, Procedure, Results

Antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2 are generally less sensitive than RT-PCR and other NAATs.

Cytopathic effect (CPE) of Viruses: Types with Examples

Cytopathic effect (CPE) of Viruses: Types with Examples

Cytopathic effect (CPE) refers to morphological changes in host cells because of viral infection. It may aid in viral disease diagnosis.

Embryonated Egg Cultures for Viruses

Embryonated Egg Cultures for Viruses

Embryonated chicken eggs are used for the cultivation of some viruses. The viruses grow in the cells of the embryo and membranes.

SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test for the diagnosis of COVID-19

SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test for the diagnosis of COVID-19

Viral Transport Media (VTM): Preparation, Uses

Viral Transport Media (VTM): Preparation, Uses

Viral Transport Media (VTM) are suitable for collection, transport, maintenance and long-term freeze storage of clinical specimens containing viruses.

Antigens in disease diagnosis

Antigens in disease diagnosis

Detection of specific antigens present in the sample (blood, urine, or CSF) using specific antibodies is the mainstay for the rapid diagnosis of infections.

Animal Cell Culture: Types, Applications

Animal Cell Culture: Types, Applications

Cells used to culture are fibroblast, lymphocytes, cells from cardiac and skeletal tissues, cells from liver, breast, skin, kidney, and tumor cells.

Western Blot Technique: Principle, Steps, Uses

Western Blot Technique: Principle, Steps, Uses

Western blotting or immunoblotting enables researchers to identify the specific protein from a mixture of proteins.

Laboratory Diagnosis of Dengue Viral Infection

Laboratory Diagnosis of Dengue Viral Infection

Detection of IgG and IgM are accessible methods but NS1 antigen detection, genome detection and virus isolation are sensitive methods.

Monospot test: Principle, Procedure, Uses

Monospot test: Principle, Procedure, Uses

Monospot test is a heterophile antibody test for the rapid screening of infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein–Barr virus.

Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Virus: Life Cycle, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis

Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Virus: Life Cycle, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis

Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis.

Hemagglutination Inhibition Test: Principle, Procedure, Uses

Hemagglutination Inhibition Test: Principle, Procedure, Uses

Antibodies against the measles virus neutralize its hemagglutinins, so preventing agglutination of RBCs by these agglutinins.

Collection of Upper Respiratory Tract Specimens

Collection of Upper Respiratory Tract Specimens

Oropharyngeal (OP) and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and nasopharyngeal wash/aspirate are the common upper respiratory tract specimens.

Measles virus: Structure, Pathogenesis, Lab Diagnosis

Measles virus: Structure, Pathogenesis, Lab Diagnosis

Measles virus is a member of the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Measles is usually a disease of childhood (3-10 years).

Lab Diagnosis of Viral Diseases: Five Approaches

Lab Diagnosis of Viral Diseases: Five Approaches

Direct detection of antigen, or gene of virus or isolation of the virus or detection of IgM antibody or four-fold rise in antibody titre.

Interpretation of Hepatitis B Serologic Test Results

Interpretation of Hepatitis B Serologic Test Results

HBsAg is present early in acute infection, disappears with a resolution of infection, and persists in chronic infection.

Why HBcAg is not detected in Serum?

Why HBcAg is not detected in Serum?

Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) are expressed by infected hepatocytes only.

Laboratory diagnosis of HIV Infection

Laboratory diagnosis of HIV Infection

Lab diagnosis of HIV is made by measuring anti-HIV antibodies in the serum of the suspected patient by ELISA or RDTS, detecting P24 antigen or via western blot technique.

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Poliomyelitis: Pathogenesis, Clinical Features, Lab Diagnosis

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Mumps Virus: Pathogenesis, Clinical Findings, Lab Diagnosis

Mumps is an acute self-limited  viral infection of the children that primarily affects salivary glands.