Hepatitis B virus is a DNA virus belonging to the family hepadnavirus and is responsible for causing acute and chronic hepatitis
A low Ct indicates a high concentration of viral genetic material, which is typically associated with a high risk of infectivity.
Antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2 are generally less sensitive than RT-PCR and other NAATs.
Cytopathic effect (CPE) refers to morphological changes in host cells because of viral infection. It may aid in viral disease diagnosis.
Embryonated chicken eggs are used for the cultivation of some viruses. The viruses grow in the cells of the embryo and membranes.
Viral Transport Media (VTM) are suitable for collection, transport, maintenance and long-term freeze storage of clinical specimens containing viruses.
Detection of specific antigens present in the sample (blood, urine, or CSF) using specific antibodies is the mainstay for the rapid diagnosis of infections.
Cells used to culture are fibroblast, lymphocytes, cells from cardiac and skeletal tissues, cells from liver, breast, skin, kidney, and tumor cells.
Western blotting or immunoblotting enables researchers to identify the specific protein from a mixture of proteins.
Detection of IgG and IgM are accessible methods but NS1 antigen detection, genome detection and virus isolation are sensitive methods.
Monospot test is a heterophile antibody test for the rapid screening of infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein–Barr virus.
Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis.
Antibodies against the measles virus neutralize its hemagglutinins, so preventing agglutination of RBCs by these agglutinins.
Oropharyngeal (OP) and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and nasopharyngeal wash/aspirate are the common upper respiratory tract specimens.
Measles virus is a member of the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Measles is usually a disease of childhood (3-10 years).
Direct detection of antigen, or gene of virus or isolation of the virus or detection of IgM antibody or four-fold rise in antibody titre.
HBsAg is present early in acute infection, disappears with a resolution of infection, and persists in chronic infection.
Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) are expressed by infected hepatocytes only.
Lab diagnosis of HIV is made by measuring anti-HIV antibodies in the serum of the suspected patient by ELISA or RDTS, detecting P24 antigen or via western blot technique.