Lab Diagnosis of Parasitic Disease

Hymenolepis nana: Life Cycle, Pathogenesis and Lab Diagnosis

Hymenolepis nana: Life Cycle, Pathogenesis and Lab Diagnosis

Hymenolepis nana is a dwarf tapeworm. It causes hymenolepiasis.

Trichrome Staining for Fecal Smears

Trichrome Staining for Fecal Smears

Trichrome staining is a simple yet rapid technique that produces uniformly well-stained smears of the intestinal protozoa, human cells, yeast, and artifact material.

Taenia Solium: Life Cycle, Pathogenesis and Lab Diagnosis

Taenia Solium: Life Cycle, Pathogenesis and Lab Diagnosis

Tenia solium, also known as pork tapeworm, causes Taeniasis, an infection that is common amongst people eating raw pork containing the cysticerci.

Ascaris lumbricoides: Life cycle, Pathogenesis, Lab Diagnosis

Ascaris lumbricoides: Life cycle, Pathogenesis, Lab Diagnosis

Ascaris infection (ascariasis) is the most common human worm infection with nearly 1 billion cases every year.

Naegleria fowleri: Characteristics, Pathogenesis and Lab Diagnosis

Naegleria fowleri: Characteristics, Pathogenesis and Lab Diagnosis

Naegleria fowleri, commonly referred to as the “brain-eating amoeba” is a small, free-living water and soil amebae capable of causing opportunistic infections in humans.

Toxoplasma gondii: Properties, Life Cycle, and Diagnosis

Toxoplasma gondii: Properties, Life Cycle, and Diagnosis

Toxoplasmosis causes mild infections in immunocompetent individuals but can cause congenital infections if a mother acquire primary infection during pregnancy

Sabin-Feldman dye test: Principle and Limitations

Sabin-Feldman dye test: Principle and Limitations

Sabin-Feldman dye test detects and quantitates specific antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii at low levels. It differentiates acute and latent infection.

Antigens in disease diagnosis

Antigens in disease diagnosis

Detection of specific antigens present in the sample (blood, urine, or CSF) using specific antibodies is the mainstay for the rapid diagnosis of infections.

Foldscope: Paper Microscope

Foldscope: Paper Microscope

Foldscope is a paper microscope that is built by folding the paper in an origami fashion, it does not require electricity to operate.

Giemsa Stain: Principle, Procedure, Results

Giemsa Stain: Principle, Procedure, Results

Giemsa stain is a type of Romanowsky stain, primarily designed for the demonstration of malarial parasites in blood smears.

Lab Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections

Lab Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections

Detection of the parasites or their particular stages (ova/egg, cyst, larva or trophozoite) in the stool specimen is diagnostic.

RDTs for Malaria Diagnosis: Principle, Results, Advantages

RDTs for Malaria Diagnosis: Principle, Results, Advantages

Three main groups of antigens detected by commercially available malaria RDTs are pLDH, HRP-2 and aldolase.

Giardia lamblia: Life Cycle, Diseases, Lab Diagnosis

Giardia lamblia: Life Cycle, Diseases, Lab Diagnosis

Giardia lamblia is a protozoan flagellates that causes Giardiasis. Ova and parasite examination is a routine method of diagnosis.

Entero Test (String test): Principle, Procedure, Uses

Entero Test (String test): Principle, Procedure, Uses

Entero test involves swallowing a string with a weighted gelatin capsule, to obtain a sample from the upper part of the small intestine.

Entamoeba histolytica: Life Cycle, Diseases, Lab Diagnosis

Entamoeba histolytica: Life Cycle, Diseases, Lab Diagnosis

Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebic dysentery (bloody diarrhea). Presence of trophozoite with ingested RBCs is diagnostic.

Kato Katz Technique: Principle, Procedure, Results

Kato Katz Technique: Principle, Procedure, Results

Kato Katz technique is used for qualitative and semi-quantitative diagnosis of intestinal helminthic infestations; especially Schistosoma spp.

Lab Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infections

Lab Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infections

Causative agent of Trichomoniasis, Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite and is transmitted sexually. It has a pear-shaped trophozoite.

NNN medium:  Composition, Preparation, Results

NNN medium:  Composition, Preparation, Results

Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium is used to isolate Leishmania. Promastigotes are seen in Giemsa stains the culture filtrate.

Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) Test

Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) Test

QBC is based on acridine orange staining of centrifuged peripheral blood samples in a microhematocrit tube and examination under UV light.

Amoebic dysentery vs. Bacillary dysentery

Amoebic dysentery vs. Bacillary dysentery

Bacillary dysentery also known as shigellosis is a bacterial disease whereas Amoebic dysentery (also known as amoebiasis) is caused by a invasive protozoan parasite.

Taenia solium vs. Taenia saginata 

Taenia solium vs. Taenia saginata 

Taeniasis is caused by both Taenia solium and Taenia saginata but only infections with Taenia solium may cause cysticercosis. Find out why

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Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT): Procedure, Results

FOBT is a lab test used to check stool samples for hidden blood or blood products that may arise due to a small amount of bleeding in the GI tract.

Direct Saline and Iodine Wet Mount

Direct Saline and Iodine Wet Mount

Saline wet mount is made by mixing a small quantity of feces in a drop of saline placed on a clean glass slide. The smear is then examined under a microscope.

Buffy Coat: Definition, Preparation, Uses  

Buffy Coat: Definition, Preparation, Uses  

Buffy coat suspension is a concentrated leukocyte suspension which contains WBCs and platelets.

Cellophane (Scotch) Tape Preparation for Pinworm Examination

Cellophane (Scotch) Tape Preparation for Pinworm Examination

As the eggs are mostly deposited on the perianal area scotch tape preparation is used to isolate and identify the eggs of pinworm.

Lab Diagnosis of Lymphatic Filariasis

Lab Diagnosis of Lymphatic Filariasis

Demonstration of microfilarae in the peripheral blood using thick or thin smear, QBC, or membrane filtration method is diagnostic.

Life Cycle of P. falciparum vs. P. vivax

Life Cycle of P. falciparum vs. P. vivax

Formal Ether Sedimentation Technique

Formal Ether Sedimentation Technique

Formal ether sedimentation technique is a stool concentration technique that is commonly done in diagnostic laboratories.

Lab Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar)

Lab Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar)

Detection of amastigote stage (LD bodies), rk39 and DAT tests are commonly used methods for the diagnosis of Kala-azar.

Laboratory Diagnosis of Malaria

Laboratory Diagnosis of Malaria

Microscopic examination (thick-thin blood smear stained with giemsa stain) remains the “gold standard” for laboratory confirmation of malaria.

Asexual Life Cycle of Plasmodium Falciparum

Asexual Life Cycle of Plasmodium Falciparum

Asexual life cycle (cycle of schizogny) of malarial parasite occurs in main. Schizont, merozoites, and gametocytes are important stages.

Thick and Thin Blood Smear for Malaria Diagnosis

Thick and Thin Blood Smear for Malaria Diagnosis

Direct microscopic visualization of the malarial parasite on the thick and/or thin blood smears has been the "gold standard" for malaria diagnosis.