Virulence factors are pathogen-produced extracellular enzymes or structural components of pathogens that aid in the colonization, multiplication, invasion, and evasion of host immune response.
Enzymes which acts as virulence factors
Toxins such as diphtheria toxin, cholera toxin, botulinum toxin, toxic shock syndrome toxin, tetanus toxin, botulinum toxin, etc., aids in the pathogenesis of respective pathogens.
You can get detailed information on the virulence factors of each pathogen with their functions in the below-mentioned blog posts.
A potential biological weapon which causes important zoonotic disease called anthrax.
Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), is a beta-hemolytic, CAMP test positive, gram-positive cocci. It can cause severe infection in newborns.
Internalin, listeriolysin O, phospholipases, etc are major virulence factors of Listeria monocytogenes.
Major virulence factors of H. pylori are flagella, urease enzyme, adhesins, VacA, CagA, OpiA, and DupA.
Major virulence factors of S. aureus are capsule, teichoic acid, protein A, enterotoxin, TSST-1, coagulase, hyaluronidase, etc.
Capsule, adhesion proteins, lipooligosaccharides, pili, IgA protease, and phase variations of H.influenzae play major roles in pathogenesis.
S. pneumoniae virulence factors include capsular polysaccharide, C carbohydrate antigen, pneumolysin, autolysin.
Major virulence factors of S.pyogenes are adhesions, M protein, hemolysins, pyrogenic exotoxins and spreading factors.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a gram-negative kidney-shaped diplococci. It causes gonorrhea, a sexually transmissted infection.
Major virulence factors of Neisseria meningitidis are capsular polysaccharide, outer membrane proteins, endotoxin and IgA protease.
Pneumococcus is lanceolate shaped gram-positive cocci and causes pneumonia and meningitis. Its is optochin sensitive and bile soluble.
Bacterial toxins are broadly divided into two general categories: exotoxins (secreted outside the cell) and endotoxins (LPS).
Normal flora of GI tract, E.coli is a major cause of urinary tract infections. It is lactose fermenting, gram negative bacilli.