Quality control strains
Antimicrobial Resistance

Quality Control Strains (standard strains) and their Uses

Quality control strains (standard strains) are well-characterized microorganisms with defined susceptibility or resistance profiles to the antimicrobial agent(s) tested. They are routinely used to standardize the antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) methodologies and to check the […]

Ambler classification of beta-lactamases
Antimicrobial Resistance

ESBL and Classification of β-lactamases

Last updated on June 21st, 2021ESBL stands for extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, i.e. a group of enzymes produced by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria which can hydrolyze all β- lactam agents except carbapenems and cephamycins. ESBLs belong […]

aware classification of antibiotics
Antimicrobial Resistance

WHO AWaRe Classification of Antibiotics

Last updated on June 21st, 2021Access, Watch, Reserve (AWaRe) classification of antibiotics was developed by World Health Organization (WHO) to assist in the development of tools for antibiotic stewardship at local, national, and global levels […]

Mechanism of macrolides
Antimicrobial Resistance

Macrolides: Mode of Action, Mechanism of Resistance

Last updated on July 4th, 2021Macrolides are primarily bacteriostatic antibacterial agents that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding with 50S subunit of the ribosome. Members of the group include erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin, and telithromycin. […]

Antimicrobial Resistance

Glycopeptides (Vancomycin, Teicoplanin)

Last updated on June 11th, 2021Glycopeptide antibiotics act primarily by inhibiting cell wall synthesis of bacteria but functions differently from beta-lactam antibiotics. Vancomycin is the most important and commonly used glycopeptides, although teicoplanin is also […]

Antimicrobial Resistance

MRSA: Emergence, Types, Detection Methods

Last updated on June 11th, 2021MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a type of staph bacteria that is resistant to several antibiotics. Historically, staph strains that are oxacillin and methicillin-resistant are termed MRSA. MRSA is resistant […]