Immunology

Antigens in disease diagnosis

Last updated on May 25th, 2021Detection of specific antigens present in the sample (blood, urine, CSF, or stool) using immunologic methods such as precipitin tests, particle agglutination tests, immunofluorescence, immunochromatographic or enzyme immunoassays are the […]

Bacteriology

Plasmids: Properties, Types and Functions

Last updated on June 26th, 2021Plasmids are extra-chromosomal genetic elements that replicate independently of the host chromosome. They are small, circular (some are linear), double-stranded DNA molecules (mostly) that exist in bacterial cells and in […]