1.       Specific immunity can be acquired either naturally or artificially and involves A)                 All of the below. B)                  antibodies. C)                  antigens. D)                 the classical complement pathway. 2.       Which DOES NOT…

CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY: Antibody-independent immunity, mediated by TH1 cells. Examples: Type-IV Hypersensitivity Responses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other intracellular pathogens. MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION: IFN-gamma, secreted by TH1 cells, activates macrophages. Effects are generally…

Cytokines are bioactive hormones, normally glycoproteins, which exercise a wide variety of biological effects on those cells which express the appropriate receptors. Cytokines are designated by their cellular origin such…